Those with political connections unfairly gained large wealth, which has discredited privatization in these regions. While media have reported widely the grand corruption that accompanied the sales, studies have argued that in addition to increased operating efficiency, daily petty corruption is, or would be, larger without privatization and that corruption is more prevalent in non-privatized sectors.
Furthermore, there is evidence to suggest that extralegal and unofficial activities are more prevalent in countries that privatized less.
In the European Union, the principle of subsidiarity is applied: a government service should be provided by the lowest, most local authority that can competently provide it. An effect is that distribution of funds in multiple instances discourages embezzlement because even small sums missing will be noticed. In contrast, in a centralized authority, even minute proportions of public funds can be large sums of money. If the highest echelons of the governments also take advantage of corruption or embezzlement from the state's treasury, it is sometimes referred to the neologism kleptocracy.
Members of the government can take advantage of the natural resources e. A number of corrupt governments have enriched themselves via foreign aid. Indeed, there is a positive correlation between aid flows and high levels of corruption within recipient countries. Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa consists primarily of extracting economic rent and moving the resulting financial capital overseas instead of investing at home. Authors Leonce Ndikumana and James K. A corrupt dictatorship typically results in many years of general hardship and suffering for the vast majority of citizens as civil society and the rule of law disintegrate.
In addition, corrupt dictators routinely ignore economic and social problems in their quest to amass ever more wealth and power. The classic case of a corrupt, exploitive dictator often given is the regime of Marshal Mobutu Sese Seko , who ruled the Democratic Republic of the Congo which he renamed Zaire from to Another classic case is Nigeria , especially under the rule of General Sani Abacha who was de facto president of Nigeria from until his death in He and his relatives are often mentioned in Nigerian letter scams claiming to offer vast fortunes for "help" in laundering his stolen "fortunes", which in reality turn out not to exist.
There are two methods of corruption of the judiciary: the state through budget planning and various privileges , and the private. Budget of the judiciary in many transitional and developing countries is almost completely controlled by the executive. The latter undermines the separation of powers, as it creates a critical financial dependence of the judiciary. The proper national wealth distribution including the government spending on the judiciary is subject of the constitutional economics. Mobile telecommunications and radio broadcasting help to fight corruption, especially in developing regions like Africa ,  where other forms of communications are limited.
Political corruption - Wikipedia
In India, the anti-corruption bureau fights against corruption, and a new ombudsman bill called Jan Lokpal Bill is being prepared. In the s, initiatives were taken at an international level in particular by the European Community , the Council of Europe , the OECD to put a ban on corruption: in , the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe,  for instance, adopted a comprehensive Programme of Action against Corruption and, subsequently, issued a series of anti-corruption standard-setting instruments:.
The purpose of these instruments was to address the various forms of corruption involving the public sector, the private sector, the financing of political activities, etc.
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To monitor the implementation at national level of the requirements and principles provided in those texts, a monitoring mechanism — the Group of States Against Corruption also known as GRECO French: Groupe d'Etats contre la corruption was created. A whistleblower also written as whistle-blower or whistle blower is a person who exposes any kind of information or activity that is deemed illegal, unethical, or not correct within an organization that is either private or public.
Those who become whistleblowers can choose to bring information or allegations to the surface either internally or externally. Externally, a whistleblower can bring allegations to light by contacting a third party outside of an accused organization such as the media, government, law enforcement, or those who are concerned. Whistleblowers, however, take the risk of facing stiff reprisal and retaliation from those who are accused or alleged of wrongdoing.
Because of this, a number of laws exist to protect whistleblowers. Some third-party groups even offer protection to whistleblowers, but that protection can only go so far. Whistleblowers face legal action, criminal charges, social stigma, and termination from any position, office, or job. Two other classifications of whistleblowing are private and public. The classifications relate to the type of organizations someone chooses to whistle-blow on private sector, or public sector.
Depending on many factors, both can have varying results. However, whistleblowing in the public sector organization is more likely to result in criminal charges and possible custodial sentences. A whistleblower who chooses to accuse a private sector organization or agency is more likely to face termination and legal and civil charges. Deeper questions and theories of whistleblowing and why people choose to do so can be studied through an ethical approach. Whistleblowing is a topic of ongoing ethical debate.
Leading arguments in the ideological camp that whistleblowing is ethical to maintain that whistleblowing is a form of civil disobedience, and aims to protect the public from government wrongdoing. In the opposite camp, some see whistleblowing as unethical for breaching confidentiality, especially in industries that handle sensitive client or patient information. Legal protection can also be granted to protect whistleblowers, but that protection is subject to many stipulations.
Hundreds of laws grant protection to whistleblowers, but stipulations can easily cloud that protection and leave whistleblowers vulnerable to retaliation and legal trouble. However, the decision and action have become far more complicated with recent advancements in technology and communication. Whistleblowers frequently face reprisal, sometimes at the hands of the organization or group they have accused, sometimes from related organizations, and sometimes under law.
Questions about the legitimacy of whistleblowing, the moral responsibility of whistleblowing, and the appraisal of the institutions of whistleblowing are part of the field of political ethics. Measuring corruption accurately is difficult if not impossible due to the illicit nature of the transaction and imprecise definitions of corruption.
One of the most common ways to estimate corruption is through perception surveys. They have the advantage of good coverage, however, they do not measure corruption precisely. This work is often credited with breaking a taboo and forcing the issue of corruption into high-level development policy discourse.http://wegoup777.online/neuroeconoma-disrupcin-y-cambio-de.php
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Transparency International currently publishes three measures, updated annually: a CPI based on aggregating third-party polling of public perceptions of how corrupt different countries are ; a Global Corruption Barometer based on a survey of general public attitudes toward and experience of corruption ; and a Bribe Payers Index , looking at the willingness of foreign firms to pay bribes. The Corruption Perceptions Index is the best known of these metrics, though it has drawn much criticism    and may be declining in influence.
This index evaluates the risk of corruption in countries' military sector. The World Bank collects a range of data on corruption,  including survey responses from over , firms worldwide  and a set of indicators of governance and institutional quality. Despite these weaknesses, the global coverage of these datasets has led to their widespread adoption, most notably by the Millennium Challenge Corporation. A number of parties have collected survey data, from the public and from experts, to try to gauge the level of corruption and bribery, as well as its impact on political and economic outcomes.
These metrics include the Global Integrity Index,  first published in These second wave projects aim to create policy change by identifying resources more effectively and creating checklists toward incremental reform. Global Integrity and the International Budget Partnership  each dispense with public surveys and instead uses in-country experts to evaluate "the opposite of corruption" — which Global Integrity defines as the public policies that prevent, discourage, or expose corruption.
Typical second wave corruption metrics do not offer the worldwide coverage found in first wave projects and instead focus on localizing information gathered to specific problems and creating deep, "unpackable" [ clarification needed ] content that matches quantitative and qualitative data. Alternative approaches, such as the British aid agency's Drivers of Change research, skips numbers and promotes understanding corruption via political economy analysis of who controls power in a given society.
The following are examples of works of fiction that portray political corruption in various forms. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. See also: Economics of corruption and Corporate crime. Further information: Human impact on the environment. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Bribery. Main article: Influence peddling.
Main article: Patronage. Main articles: Nepotism and Cronyism. See also: Keep the bastards honest. Main articles: Gombeen man and Parochialism. Main article: Electoral fraud. Main article: Embezzlement. Main article: Kickback bribery. Main article: Unholy alliance geopolitical. This article possibly contains original research. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed.
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